Uma das dificuldades encontradas por alunos de inglês, é lidar com reported speech e suas construções. Mas não tenha medo; não é tão difícil assim! É claro que você precisa estar seguro no uso dos tempos verbais em inglês a fim de usar o reported speech... o segredo, é que ao relatar a outros o que alguém disse a você, você precisa "voltar" um tempo verbal.
Por exemplo: se eu digo: The party was great last night" (Aqui usei um passado simples), ao relatar a alguém o que eu disse, você usará o past perfect) - "Ana told me that the party had been great last night."
Aqui, mais detalhes. Obs: esta aulinha é para alunos de nível intermediate to advanced!
We use reported speech in order to report what somebody has told us. Grammatically, you usually go one verb tense back when you wish to report something; for example:
Present simple - > past simple
Present continuous > past continuous
Past continuous > past perfect continuous
Be going to > was going to
Past simple > Past perfect
Will / shall - > would/ should
Would > would
Present perfect > past perfect
Past perfect > past perfect
Can > could
Must > had to
"I've worked all morning," said Sarah > Sarah said she had worked all morning.
"I love this film!" Tom told me. > Tom told me he loved THAT film.
"I can't go. I don't have enough money," Lisa explained. > Lisa explained she couldn't go because she didn't have enough money.
"I will never see him again," Martha stated. > Martha stated that she would never see him again.
Note also these changes in time expressions :
Next month, next year, etc… > The following week, the following month, etc…
Now > then
This morning, evening, etc… > that morning, evening, etc…
Yesterday – The day before
Tonight > that night
Three days ago > three days before
Last week, month, etc… > the week, month before
Tomorrow > the following day
"I'm taking vacations next week", Jim said. > Jim said he was taking vacations the following week.
"I met Tina three days ago," John told me. > John told me he had met Tina three days before.
When reporting what someone told you on the same day or week that they’ve told you, the words and phrases do not change; example:
“I’ll see you next week!”, Said the lawyer.
Reported speech: He says he’ll see me next week. (it’s still this week when she reports what the lawyer said).