sábado, 1 de julho de 2017

Reported Speech




Uma das dificuldades encontradas por alunos de inglês, é lidar com reported speech e suas construções. Mas não tenha medo; não é tão difícil assim! É claro que você precisa estar seguro no uso dos tempos verbais em inglês a fim de usar o reported speech... o segredo, é que ao relatar a outros o que alguém disse a você, você precisa "voltar" um tempo verbal. 

Por exemplo: se eu digo: The party was great last night" (Aqui usei um passado simples), ao relatar a alguém o que eu disse, você usará o past perfect) - "Ana told me that the party had been great last night."




Aqui, mais detalhes. Obs: esta aulinha é para alunos de nível intermediate to advanced!


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We use reported speech in order to report what somebody has told us. Grammatically, you usually go one verb tense back when you wish to report something;  for example:

Present simple - > past simple
Present continuous > past continuous
Past continuous > past perfect continuous
Be going to > was going to
Past simple > Past perfect
Will / shall  - > would/ should
Would > would
Present perfect > past perfect
Past perfect  > past perfect
Can > could
Must > had to

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Some examples: 

"I've worked all morning," said Sarah > Sarah said she had worked all morning.

"I love this film!" Tom told me. > Tom told me  he loved THAT film.

"I can't go. I don't have enough money," Lisa explained. > Lisa explained she couldn't go because she didn't have enough money.

"I will never see him again," Martha stated. > Martha stated that she would never see him again.



Note also these changes in time expressions :

Next month, next year, etc… > The following week, the following month, etc…
Now > then
This morning, evening, etc… > that morning, evening, etc…
Yesterday – The day before
Tonight > that night
Three days ago > three days before
Last week, month, etc… > the week, month before
Tomorrow > the following day 


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Examples:

"I'm taking vacations next week", Jim said. > Jim said he was taking vacations the following week.

"I met Tina three days ago," John told me. > John told me he had met Tina three days before.


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When reporting what someone told you on the same day  or week that they’ve told you, the words and phrases do not change; example:

“I’ll see you next week!”, Said the lawyer. 
 Reported speech: He says he’ll see me next week. (it’s still this week when she reports what the lawyer said).





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